Advanced PlacementCollege / Chemistry

How Hard is Your Tap Water?

Students use conductometric titration and gravimetry to determine how much calcium carbonate is in a sample of tap water.

This lab is an introduction to methodological comparisons. Percent error is calculated for both gravimetry and titration. Samples of tap water from various locales are concentrated and analyzed for calcium content.


Student Files

03_ACI_How_Hard_Is_Your_Tap_Water_S.docx 1.11 MB
03_ACI_How_Hard_Is_Your_Tap_Water_S.pdf 1.08 MB
03_ACI_How_Hard_Is_Your_Tap_Water.spklab 21.07 KB

Teacher Files

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Standards Correlations

IB Topics AP Topics
1.4 SPQ-1.A; SPQ-2.A; TRA-1.C; SPQ-3.C; SPQ-4.A

Featured Equipment

Wireless Drop Counter

Wireless Drop Counter

Use the new Wireless Drop Counter for more efficient and accurate titration data. Conducting a titration has never been easier!

Wireless Conductivity Sensor

Wireless Conductivity Sensor

This waterproof sensor connects via Bluetooth® to measure both conductivity (ionic content in solution) and total dissolved solids.

Many lab activities can be conducted with our Wireless, PASPORT, or even ScienceWorkshop sensors and equipment. For assistance with substituting compatible instruments, contact PASCO Technical Support. We're here to help.

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Source: Lab #03

Advanced Chemistry through Inquiry

How Hard is Your Tap Water?