Advanced Physics Through Inquiry 1 Teacher Guide

(PS-2848)

Teacher guide featuring 15 labs designed for Advanced Placement Physics 1.

Momentum and Impulse

Lab Summary

Students use a motion sensor, force sensor, and dynamics system to investigate the relationship between the change in momentum of a cart undergoing a collision and the impulse imparted to the cart to change its momentum, and then use their data to establish a measurement-based relationship between change in momentum and impulse.

Theory

How is the impulse imparted to an object in a collision related to the change in momentum of the object? Investigate the relationship between the change in momentum of a cart undergoing a collision and the impulse imparted to the cart to change its momentum. Establish a measurement-based relationship between the change in momentum and the impulse.

Method

Students measure the following: the force imparted to a cart as it lightly collides with a spring bumper, the time interval during which the force is imparted, and the velocity of the cart before, during, and after the collision. The mass and the velocity of the cart just before and just after the collision are used to calculate the change in momentum of the cart as a result of the collision. Students determine the average force and the time interval associated with the same collision using force versus time graphs and the statistical tools on their data collection system. The average force and the time interval are then used to calculate the impulse associated with the collision, and students compare their calculated impulse to their calculated change in momentum. Students repeat this process 4 times and ascertain that the impulse associated with the collision of an object is equal to the change in momentum of the object.

Sensors / Equipment Used:

PASPORT Motion Sensor

(PS-2103A)

The PASPORT Motion Sensor accurately measures position, velocity, and acceleration of a target. Can be used to track the motion of carts, balls, people and more.

PASPORT High Resolution Force Sensor

(PS-2189)

Designed to measure both pulling and pushing forces. Provides a very high resolution of data collection.

PAScar (Set of 2)

(ME-6950)

A feature-rich dynamics cart for virtually friction-free motion on a dynamics track.

PAStrack

(ME-6960)

Connect two 0.5m length tracks and use with PAScars to study motion.

Track Rod Clamp

(ME-9836)

Fastens to the T-Slot of a Dynamics track and accepts a 1/2 inch rod.

Discover Collision Bracket

(ME-8973A)

This bracket fastens to the T-Slot of a dynamics track and securely holds the Force Sensor for measuring collisions with a cart.

Aluminum Table Clamp

(ME-8995)

This clamp with 6.5 cm grip width, accepts plain or threaded rods up to 1/2 inch or 1.25 cm.

45 cm Stainless Steel Rod

(ME-8736)

Non-threaded and non-magnetic lab rod.

Ohaus Scout SKX Balance 2000g

(SE-8757B)

Combines range, resolution and low cost, making it ideal for the student science lab. 2000 g version.

Materials Used:

The Ohaus Scout Pro Balance 2000g listed in the Materials and Equipment section is for classroom use, not individual lab stations.

The Associated Bundle:

Advanced Physics 1 Starter Bundle

(PS-2815)

Equipment and sensor starter bundle for performing 8 experiments in the Advanced Physics through Inquiry 1 Teacher Guide.

Interface Required

This experiment may require software and an interface for data collection.