Advanced Chemistry Through Inquiry Teacher Guide - PS-2828

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Overview

This teacher manual for AP and Advanced Chemistry labs has both the printed version and a flash drive with teacher tips, a PDF of teacher version and editable Word student version. Teacher version is complete with guided inquiry lab activities, suggested answers, and much more.

  • Also includes a 60-day free trial of Odyssey software.
  • The guide supports the use of SPARKvue software which is available for use on Windows & Mac Computers, iPads, iPhones, Android tablets and smartphones and Chromebooks.

Experiments

AP Objective 3.10

Modeling Chemistry

Exploring chemical and physical changes in a laboratory experiment is not as easy as one may think. The general appearance of a substance can tell us something about events on the molecular level, but this provides limited information. Measuring parameters like conductivity, temperature, pH, or pressure with digital sensors can provide data that helps us understand more about what is going on, but even that may not be enough to completely understand that which is too small to see. This is the challenge of being a chemist.

AP Objective 1.16

Light, Color and Concentration (Colorimeter Version)

If you’ve ever added a powdered drink mix to water, you realize that the more concentrated the drink, the deeper the color of the solution. Analytical chemists, particularly in the agricultural and medical fields, routinely use a quantitative approach called spectroscopy to determine the concentration of solute in a solution as it relates to the color of the solution.

Light, Color and Concentration (Spectrometer Version)

If you’ve ever added a powdered drink mix to water, you realize that the more concentrated the drink, the deeper the color of the solution. Analytical chemists, particularly in the agricultural and medical fields, routinely use a quantitative approach called spectroscopy to determine the concentration of solute in a solution as it relates to the color of the solution.

AP Objective 1.19

Gravimetric Analysis of a Precipitate

Chemists can find the identity of unknown compounds using techniques such as qualitative analysis, chromatography, spectroscopy, and gravimetric analysis. Gravimetric analysis, which uses a balance to determine the mass of a substance, is one of the oldest and most accurate quantitative methods for determining the amount of an analyte in a sample.

AP Objective 3.4

Stoichiometry in Solutions

When water is tested, chemists can tell you what impurities are present. If something harmful is found in your drinking water, like lead or cadmium, it is important to know how much is present. Hazardous particles put into your body faster than they can be removed will build up to toxic levels. There are several ways to determine the amount of dissolved particles in a solution. In this lab, you will explore one of them.

AP Objective 2.8

Polar and Non-Polar Substances

Some things dissolve in water, some do not. If you want to dissolve permanent marker ink, for example, you'll need something oily. Why? What is the difference in the chemical structure of a waterproof ink and one that washes off the paper at the first hint of moisture?
How does the polarity of a compound affect its solubility in different solvents?

AP Objective 6.21

Solubility

Most ionic compounds are considered to be soluble or slightly soluble in water. Even compounds considered insoluble will dissolve to some small extent. This small extent can become very important when the dissolved substance is poisonous like lead, thallium, or cadmium. Over time, tiny amounts of these heavy metals can build up in your body and cause severe health problems. By knowing the amount of a dissolved ion in a solution, we can determine any potential health risks. How can you determine the amount of dissolved ions in a solution?

AP Objective 3.6

Empirical Formula (Colorimeter Version)

A major emphasis of laboratory work for a chemist is determining the composition of a compound. There are many tools, such as chromatographic separation and spectroscopy, that aid the chemist in determining chemical composition. By keeping track of mass and breaking a compound into its component pieces, the pieces can be measured and the composition determined. How do you discover the formula for an unknown substance?

Empirical Formula (Spectrometer Version)

A major emphasis of laboratory work for a chemist is determining the composition of a compound. There are many tools, such as chromatographic separation and spectroscopy, that aid the chemist in determining chemical composition. By keeping track of mass and breaking a compound into its component pieces, the pieces can be measured and the composition determined. How do you discover the formula for an unknown substance?

AP Objective 3.9

Measuring Vitamin C - A Redox Titration

Vitamin C, also called L-ascorbic acid, is found in many foods. Most people expect orange juice to be the best source of vitamin C but other berries have a higher vitamin C content and juice drinks like Hi-C® have a great deal of added vitamin C. In these cases, it is difficult to perform a traditional acid–base titration because there may be more than one acid present. How can we accurately measure the vitamin C content present in foods?
What foods have the highest levels of vitamin C?

AP Objective 4.1

Factors That Affect Reaction Rate

In some cases we want reactions to proceed quickly, for example, for air bag deployment or certain processes used in manufacturing. In other cases, we want reactions to proceed slowly, such as the corrosion of car parts or aging. Scientists have discovered many factors, or variables, that can be manipulated to change the rate of a reaction. In this investigation, you explore one factor that may alter the rate of a reaction and share what you've found with your classmates. How can we speed up or slow down a chemical reaction?

AP Objective 4.2

Measuring the Speed of a Reaction (Colorimeter)

You have seen instructions on bottles of medicine instructing you, for example, to take “two capsules every four hours.” How do scientists come up with how often to take a medication? The answer is that they have done experiments that quantify how quickly the medicine is metabolized by the body. In other words, they develop equations that predict how long it will be before the concentration drops too low to have an effect on your symptoms. Such problems require scientists to make quantitative predictions, that is, to find an equation for the reaction. How do you determine the speed of a reaction?

Measuring the Speed of a Reaction (Spectrometer)

You have seen instructions on bottles of medicine instructing you, for example, to take “two capsules every four hours.” How do scientists come up with how often to take a medication? The answer is that they have done experiments that quantify how quickly the medicine is metabolized by the body. In other words, they develop equations that predict how long it will be before the concentration drops too low to have an effect on your symptoms. Such problems require scientists to make quantitative predictions, that is, to find an equation for the reaction. How do you determine the speed of a reaction?

AP Objective 5.7

Energy in Chemical Reactions

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy is neither lost nor gained in a chemical process. This is paraphrased as “energy is conserved.” Reactions that release energy are known as exothermic reactions. Reactions that absorb energy are endothermic reactions. The amount of heat energy involved in a process is referred to as enthalpy. Although the amount of enthalpy cannot be measured directly, scientists can determine how much it changes. In this lab, you will use the First Law of Thermodynamics to determine the change of energy in various reactions and combine the results to determine the enthalpy change of a related reaction. How do you find the change of enthalpy in chemical reactions?

AP Objective 6.9

Chemical Equilibrium (Colorimeter Version)

In 1901, Henry Louis Le Châtelier combined explosive hydrogen gas with nitrogen gas in an attempt to form ammonia. His efforts met with disastrous results—he almost killed his assistant. Although he abandoned the synthesis of ammonia, he had a fine career that led him to discover the principle of chemical equilibrium, now known as Le Châtelier’s Principle. This principle is used by chemical engineers to create processes that make the maximum amount of products. How can a chemical reaction be manipulated to maximize yield (without blowing up your assistant)?

Chemical Equilibrium (Spectrometer Version)

In 1901, Henry Louis Le Châtelier combined explosive hydrogen gas with nitrogen gas in an attempt to form ammonia. His efforts met with disastrous results—he almost killed his assistant. Although he abandoned the synthesis of ammonia, he had a fine career that led him to discover the principle of chemical equilibrium, now known as Le Châtelier’s Principle. This principle is used by chemical engineers to create processes that make the maximum amount of products. How can a chemical reaction be manipulated to maximize yield (without blowing up your assistant)?

AP Objective 6.12

Shape of the Titration Curves

A titration curve has a distinctive shape that often catches students by surprise. The shape of this curve changes predictably when weak acids are substituted for strong acids. Other parameters can also cause it to change. Once you have an understanding of the fundamental shape, a great deal of information can be derived from a titration curve. What factors influence the shape of a titration curve?

AP Objective 6.13

Weak Acid Titration

Weak acids have a slightly different chemistry than strong acids. If the pH of a strong acid solution and a weak acid solution of equal concentration were analyzed, the weaker acid would have a higher pH. This is due to the partial ionization of the weak acid. However, if the weak acid is neutralized by a strong base, the weak acid is forced to ionize completely. What information can you derive from a pH titration curve of a weak acid?

AP Objective 6.20

Introduction to Buffers

As you have seen in titration experiments, adding one drop of an acidic or basic solution to another solution can result in large changes in pH. However, many biological reactions only work within a narrow range of pH (between about 6 and 8). How does the body, a plant, or the soil keep the pH from changing drastically every time it comes in contact with an acid or base? In this lab, you will investigate solutions that help answer this question.
What is a buffer and what are the components of a buffer solution?

AP Objective 6.18

Buffer Properties

Buffers are solutions that are resistant to changes in their pH when acids or bases are added. For example, human blood contains the bicarbonate ion. This ion can accept hydrogen ions to remove excess acidity in the blood or can donate hydrogen ions to remove alkalinity in the blood. Once the bicarbonate ions are used up, blood can rapidly become either too acidic or too basic. In other words, the bicarbonate buffer system in blood has a limited capacity. How are buffers made, and what determines their capacity?

AP Objective 3.13

Moving Electrons

Reactions that occur without outside intervention are said to occur spontaneously. Non-spontaneous reactions can occur if some outside factor provides enough energy. Electrolysis is the process of using electricity to force a non-spontaneous reaction to occur. Electrolysis can be used to separate pure metals from their ore and plate metals onto surfaces. How can you make a non-spontaneous reaction do useful things?

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