Impulse Experiment - EX-5509A



In this experiment designed for use with PASCO Capstone software, the impulse on a cart is determined in two ways, by measuring the change in velocity and by finding the area under a force versus time curve.

A Smart Cart runs down a slightly inclined track with its Force Sensor equipped with either a clay bumper, spring bumper or magnetic bumper before colliding with an endstop. To determine the change in momentum (impulse), the speeds before and after the collision are recorded using the Smart Cart's encoder. To confirm the impulse, the force versus time is plotted and the impulse is determined by finding the area under the curve.

Different shaped curves of force versus time are obtained for the different bumpers. The spring and magnetic bumpers result in nearly elastic collisions while the clay produces a completely inelastic collision. The area under the clay force curve is half the area under the spring or magnetic force curves because the cart does not rebound in the clay collision.

PASCO Advantage:
Since the the Smart Cart is capable of measuring both force and velocity, it eliminates the need for any external sensor. No interface is required and no wires interfere with the motion because the Smart Cart transmits data wirelessly over Bluetooth® 4.0.

The force vs. time is shown for three different bumpers: clay bumper in green, spring bumper in blue, and magnetic bumper in red.

Bluetooth Low Energy Wireless Connectivity

Required Software:

PASCO products that use Bluetooth® Low Energy connectivity (wireless sensors, Smart Carts, and the AirLink) require the latest versions of our software.

PASCO Capstone is available for Mac and Windows. SPARKvue is available for Mac, Windows, iOS, Android and Chromebooks.

Additionally, the Wireless Motion Sensor and Wireless Smart Carts can be connected via Bluetooth and used with our MatchGraph app.

Compatibility/System Requirements

Any current model Chromebook, Mac, iPad, iPhone, Android tablet or phone will support direct connection to PASCO Bluetooth Low Energy devices. Also, any Windows 10 device with Creators Edition 1703 or later will support direct connection.

Chromebook users MUST have the latest firmware updates for ALL wireless sensors in order to use them without the USB Bluetooth Adapter. Full information.

All other Windows computers/tablets, older Macs, and Chromebooks without updated sensor firmware currently require the PS‑3500 USB Bluetooth Adapter to connect to PASCO’s Bluetooth Low Energy devices.

Full compatibility details are available, including compatibility information for older computing devices.

Buying Guide

USB Bluetooth Adapter

Windows devices, Chromebooks and older Macs lack native Bluetooth® Smart support and require an adapter to use PASCO wireless products.

All current model Macs, iPads, iPhones, Android tablets or phones support direct connection to PASCO Bluetooth Smart devices and do not require the adapter.

Full compatibility details are available.

USB Bluetooth Adapter   PS-3500
Ohaus Triple-Beam Balance (without Tare)
Ohaus Triple-Beam Balance (without Tare)   SE-8723

Software Required

This product requires or recommends PASCO Capstone for data collection and analysis.